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Song et al. report that sheathing of a large basic patch on lipoprotein lipase by the acidic domain of endothelial cell protein is essential for lipoprotein lipase movement to the capillary lumen. The cover image shows colorized cross sections of heart capillaries containing an endothelial cell nucleus from WT (top 2 rows) or GPIHBP1 mutant mice (bottom 2 rows). Image credit: Anne P. Beigneux and Wenxin Song.
Eddie C.Y. Wang, Ceri A. Fielding, Richard J. Stanton
Colin J. Worby, Benjamin S. Olson, Karen W. Dodson, Ashlee M. Earl, Scott J. Hultgren
Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide, with pathological fibrotic remodeling mediated by activated cardiac myofibroblasts representing a unifying theme across etiologies. Despite the profound contributions of myocardial fibrosis to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure, there currently exist limited clinical interventions that effectively target the cardiac fibroblast and its role in fibrotic tissue deposition. Exploration of novel strategies designed to mitigate or reverse myofibroblast activation and cardiac fibrosis will likely yield powerful therapeutic approaches for the treatment of multiple diseases of the heart, including heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome, and cardiovascular disease linked to type 2 diabetes. In this Review, we provide an overview of classical regulators of cardiac fibrosis and highlight emerging, next-generation epigenetic regulatory targets that have the potential to revolutionize treatment of the expanding cardiovascular disease patient population.
Joshua G. Travers, Charles A. Tharp, Marcello Rubino, Timothy A. McKinsey
Myosin modulators are a novel class of pharmaceutical agents that are being developed to treat patients with a range of cardiomyopathies. The therapeutic goal of these drugs is to target cardiac myosins directly to modulate contractility and cardiac power output to alleviate symptoms that lead to heart failure and arrhythmias, without altering calcium signaling. In this Review, we discuss two classes of drugs that have been developed to either activate (omecamtiv mecarbil) or inhibit (mavacamten) cardiac contractility by binding to β-cardiac myosin (MYH7). We discuss progress in understanding the mechanisms by which the drugs alter myosin mechanochemistry, and we provide an appraisal of the results from clinical trials of these drugs, with consideration for the importance of disease heterogeneity and genetic etiology for predicting treatment benefit.
Sharlene M. Day, Jil C. Tardiff, E. Michael Ostap
The gut microbiome is at the center of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis and disease activity. While this has mainly been studied in the context of the bacterial microbiome, recent advances have provided tools for the study of host genetics and metagenomics of host-fungal interaction. Through these tools, strong evidence has emerged linking certain fungal taxa, such as Candida and Malassezia, with cellular and molecular pathways of IBD disease biology. Mouse models and human fecal microbial transplant also suggest that some disease-participatory bacteria and fungi may act not via the host directly, but via their fungal-bacterial ecologic interactions. We hope that these insights, and the study design and multi-omics strategies used to develop them, will facilitate the inclusion of the fungal community in basic and translational IBD research.
David M. Underhill, Jonathan Braun
During blood vessel disease, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expansion and interaction with the matrix trigger changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this issue of the JCI, Dave et al. discover a signaling network that drives VSMC expansion and vascular obstruction caused by elastin insufficiency. Using a combination of gene-targeted mice, tissues and cells from patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome, and targeting of elastin in human VSMCs, the authors identified VSMC-derived NOTCH3 signaling as a critical mediator of aortic hypermuscularization and loss of vascular patency. NOTCH3-specific therapies or therapies that target downstream molecular pathways may provide opportunities to minimize VSMC growth and treat cardiovascular disease with minimal side effects.
Kimberly Malka, Lucy Liaw
Macrophages within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment take on unexpected roles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as reported by Moore and colleagues in this issue of the JCI. In contrast to solid tumors, where tumor-associated macrophages frequently assume an immunosuppressive phenotype that promotes tumor progression, this study revealed that BM macrophages repressed leukemia expansion in AML through a pathway called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). After phagocytosis of dead and dying leukemic cells, including the mitochondria within the leukemic blasts, mitochondrial DNA activated stimulator of IFN genes (STING), leading to inflammatory signals that enhanced phagocytosis and restrained leukemic cell expansion. These findings unveil the modulation of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis via LAP as a potential therapeutic strategy directed at the BM microenvironment in AML.
William Brian Dalton, Gabriel Ghiaur, Linda M.S. Resar
CLN7 Batten disease, also known as variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 (vLINCL7), is an ultra-rare form of Batten disease that presents early in life with severe neurological symptoms, including visual deficits, motor problems, and frequent seizures. There is high unmet need for disease-modifying therapies, as no existing treatment can halt progression or prevent premature death. In this issue of the JCI, Chen et al. present an AAV gene therapy for CLN7 that shows marked benefit in a mouse model of CLN7 Batten disease, paving the way for a phase I trial. The candidate gene therapy shows benefit for histopathology, behavioral abnormalities, and survival in mice and offers an acceptable safety profile in both mice and rats. Questions remain regarding dose, scaling, and timing of administration for patients, but this work is a substantial step forward for a very challenging disease.
Jon J. Brudvig, Jill M. Weimer
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with an increased risk of vascular-occlusive events and of leukemia. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) may increase both risks. In turn, physiologic abnormalities in SCD may modify the incidence and/or distribution of genetic alterations in CH. In a recent issue of the JCI, Liggett et al. found no difference in CH rate between individuals with versus without SCD. Here we contextualize this report and discuss the complex interplay between CH and SCD with particular attention to consequences for emerging gene therapies. We further consider the limitations in our current understanding of these topics that must be addressed in order to optimize therapeutic strategies for SCD.
Aaron J. Stonestrom, Ross L. Levine
BACKGROUND Fasting and NAD+-boosting compounds, including NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR), confer antiinflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic potential are incompletely defined.METHODS We explored the underlying biology in myeloid cells from healthy volunteers following in vivo placebo or NR administration and subsequently tested the findings in vitro in monocytes extracted from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).RESULTS RNA-Seq of unstimulated and LPS-activated monocytes implicated NR in the regulation of autophagy and type I IFN signaling. In primary monocytes, NR blunted LPS-induced IFN-β production, and genetic or pharmacological disruption of autophagy phenocopied this effect. Given that NAD+ is a coenzyme in oxidoreductive reactions, metabolomics was performed and identified that NR increased the inosine level. Inosine supplementation similarly blunted autophagy and IFN-β release. Finally, because SLE exhibits type I IFN dysregulation, we assessed the NR effect on monocytes from patients with SLE and found that NR reduced autophagy and IFN-β release.CONCLUSION We conclude that NR, in an NAD+-dependent manner and in part via inosine signaling, mediated suppression of autophagy and attenuated type I IFN in myeloid cells, and we identified NR as a potential adjunct for SLE management.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov registration numbers NCT02812238, NCT00001846, and NCT00001372.FUNDING This work was supported by the NHLBI and NIAMS Intramural Research divisions.
Jing Wu, Komudi Singh, Amy Lin, Allison M. Meadows, Kaiyuan Wu, Vivian Shing, Maximilian Bley, Shahin Hassanzadeh, Rebecca D. Huffstutler, Mark S. Schmidt, Luz P. Blanco, Rong Tian, Charles Brenner, Mehdi Pirooznia, Mariana J. Kaplan, Michael N. Sack
Piezo1 forms mechanically activated nonselective cation channels that contribute to endothelial response to fluid flow. Here we reveal an important role in the control of capillary density. Conditional endothelial cell–specific deletion of Piezo1 in adult mice depressed physical performance. Muscle microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and capillary rarefaction were evident and sufficient to account for the effect on performance. There was selective upregulation of thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), an inducer of endothelial cell apoptosis, with no effect on TSP1, a related important player in muscle physiology. TSP2 was poorly expressed in muscle endothelial cells but robustly expressed in muscle pericytes, in which nitric oxide (NO) repressed the Tsp2 gene without an effect on Tsp1. In endothelial cells, Piezo1 was required for normal expression of endothelial NO synthase. The data suggest an endothelial cell–pericyte partnership of muscle in which endothelial Piezo1 senses blood flow to sustain capillary density and thereby maintain physical capability.
Fiona Bartoli, Marjolaine Debant, Eulashini Chuntharpursat-Bon, Elizabeth L. Evans, Katie E. Musialowski, Gregory Parsonage, Lara C. Morley, T. Simon Futers, Piruthivi Sukumar, T. Scott Bowen, Mark T. Kearney, Laeticia Lichtenstein, Lee D. Roberts, David J. Beech
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) acquire enhanced immune checkpoint responses to evade immune cell killing and promote tumor progression. Here we showed that signal regulatory protein γ (SIRPγ) determined CSLC properties and immune evasiveness in a small population of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cancer cells. A SIRPγhi population displayed CSLC properties and transmitted the immune escape signal through sustaining CD47 expression in both SIRPγhi and SIRPγlo/– tumor cells. SIRPγ bridged MST1 and PP2A to facilitate MST1 dephosphorylation, resulting in Hippo/YAP activation and leading to cytokine release by CSLCs, which stimulated CD47 expression in LUAD cells and consequently inhibited tumor cell phagocytosis. SIRPγ promoted tumor growth and metastasis in vivo through YAP signaling. Notably, SIRPγ targeting with genetic SIRPγ knockdown or a SIRPγ-neutralizing antibody inhibited CSLC phenotypes and elicited phagocytosis that suppressed tumor growth in vivo. SIRPG was upregulated in human LUAD and its overexpression predicted poor survival outcome. Thus, SIRPγhi cells serve as CSLCs and tumor immune checkpoint–initiating cells, propagating the immune escape signal to the entire cancer cell population. Our study identifies Hippo/YAP signaling as the first mechanism by which SIRPγ is engaged and reveals that targeting SIRPγ represents an immune- and CSLC-targeting strategy for lung cancer therapy.
Chuan Xu, Guoxiang Jin, Hong Wu, Wei Cui, Yu-Hui Wang, Rajesh Kumar Manne, Guihua Wang, Weina Zhang, Xian Zhang, Fei Han, Zhen Cai, Bo-Syong Pan, Che-Chia Hsu, Yiqiang Liu, Anmei Zhang, Jie Long, Hongbo Zou, Shuang Wang, Xiaodan Ma, Jinling Duan, Bin Wang, Weihui Liu, Haitao Lan, Qing Xiong, Gang Xue, Zhongzhu Chen, Zhigang Xu, Mark E. Furth, Sarah Haigh Molina, Yong Lu, Dan Xie, Xiu-Wu Bian, Hui-Kuan Lin
Obstructive arterial diseases, including supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), atherosclerosis, and restenosis, share 2 important features: an abnormal or disrupted elastic lamellae structure and excessive smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the relationship between these pathological features is poorly delineated. SVAS is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function, hypomorphic, or deletion mutations in the elastin gene (ELN), and SVAS patients and elastin-mutant mice display increased arterial wall cellularity and luminal obstructions. Pharmacological treatments for SVAS are lacking, as the underlying pathobiology is inadequately defined. Herein, using human aortic vascular cells, mouse models, and aortic samples and SMCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of ELN-deficient patients, we demonstrated that elastin insufficiency induced epigenetic changes, upregulating the NOTCH pathway in SMCs. Specifically, reduced elastin increased levels of γ-secretase, activated NOTCH3 intracellular domain, and downstream genes. Notch3 deletion or pharmacological inhibition of γ-secretase attenuated aortic hypermuscularization and stenosis in Eln–/– mutants. Eln–/– mice expressed higher levels of NOTCH ligand JAGGED1 (JAG1) in aortic SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs). Finally, Jag1 deletion in SMCs, but not ECs, mitigated the hypermuscular and stenotic phenotype in the aorta of Eln–/– mice. Our findings reveal that NOTCH3 pathway upregulation induced pathological aortic SMC accumulation during elastin insufficiency and provide potential therapeutic targets for SVAS.
Jui M. Dave, Raja Chakraborty, Aglaia Ntokou, Junichi Saito, Fatima Z. Saddouk, Zhonghui Feng, Ashish Misra, George Tellides, Robert K. Riemer, Zsolt Urban, Caroline Kinnear, James Ellis, Seema Mital, Robert Mecham, Kathleen A. Martin, Daniel M. Greif
Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domains are positively charged crescent-shaped modules that mediate curvature of negatively charged lipid membranes during remodeling processes. The BAR domain proteins PICK1, ICA69, and the arfaptins have recently been demonstrated to coordinate the budding and formation of immature secretory granules (ISGs) at the trans-Golgi network. Here, we identify 4 coding variants in the PICK1 gene from a whole-exome screening of Danish patients with diabetes that each involve a change in positively charged residues in the PICK1 BAR domain. All 4 coding variants failed to rescue insulin content in INS-1E cells upon knock down of endogenous PICK1. Moreover, 2 variants showed dominant-negative properties. In vitro assays addressing BAR domain function suggested that the coding variants compromised BAR domain function but increased the capacity to cause fission of liposomes. Live confocal microscopy and super-resolution microscopy further revealed that PICK1 resides transiently on ISGs before egress via vesicular budding events. Interestingly, this egress of PICK1 was accelerated in the coding variants. We propose that PICK1 assists in or complements the removal of excess membrane and generic membrane trafficking proteins, and possibly also insulin, from ISGs during the maturation process; and that the coding variants may cause premature budding, possibly explaining their dominant-negative function.
Rita C. Andersen, Jan H. Schmidt, Joscha Rombach, Matthew D. Lycas, Nikolaj R. Christensen, Viktor K. Lund, Donnie S. Stapleton, Signe S. Pedersen, Mathias A. Olsen, Mikkel Stoklund, Gith Noes-Holt, Tommas T.E. Nielsen, Mark P. Keller, Anna M. Jansen, Rasmus Herlo, Massimo Pietropaolo, Jens B. Simonsen, Ole Kjærulff, Birgitte Holst, Alan D. Attie, Ulrik Gether, Kenneth L. Madsen
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 (CLN7) disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the facilitator superfamily domain containing 8 (MFSD8) gene, which encodes a membrane-bound lysosomal protein, MFSD8. To test the effectiveness and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy, an in vitro study demonstrated that AAV2/MFSD8 dose dependently rescued lysosomal function in fibroblasts from a CLN7 patient. An in vivo efficacy study using intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 to Mfsd8– /– mice at P7–P10 or P120 with high or low dose led to clear age- and dose-dependent effects. A high dose of AAV9/MFSD8 at P7–P10 resulted in widespread MFSD8 mRNA expression, tendency of amelioration of subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase accumulation and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, normalization of impaired behaviors, doubled median life span, and extended normal body weight gain. In vivo safety studies in rodents concluded that intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 was safe and well tolerated. In summary, these results demonstrated that the AAV9/MFSD8 vector is both effective and safe in preclinical models.
Xin Chen, Thomas Dong, Yuhui Hu, Frances C. Shaffo, Nandkishore R. Belur, Joseph R. Mazzulli, Steven J. Gray
Despite being the first homolog of the bacterial RecQ helicase to be identified in humans, the function of RECQL1 remains poorly characterized. Furthermore, unlike other members of the human RECQ family of helicases, mutations in RECQL1 have not been associated with a genetic disease. Here, we identify 2 families with a genome instability disorder that we have named RECON (RECql ONe) syndrome, caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL gene. The affected individuals had short stature, progeroid facial features, a hypoplastic nose, xeroderma, and skin photosensitivity and were homozygous for the same missense mutation in RECQL1 (p.Ala459Ser), located within its zinc binding domain. Biochemical analysis of the mutant RECQL1 protein revealed that the p.A459S missense mutation compromised its ATPase, helicase, and fork restoration activity, while its capacity to promote single-strand DNA annealing was largely unaffected. At the cellular level, this mutation in RECQL1 gave rise to a defect in the ability to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to topoisomerase poisons and a failure of DNA replication to progress efficiently in the presence of abortive topoisomerase lesions. Taken together, RECQL1 is the fourth member of the RecQ family of helicases to be associated with a human genome instability disorder.
Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Satpal S. Jhujh, Srijita Dhar, Joshua A. Sommers, Arindam Datta, Gabriel M.C. Longo, Laura J. Grange, John J. Reynolds, Sophie L. Cooke, Gavin S. McNee, Robert Hollingworth, Beth L. Woodward, Anil N. Ganesh, Stephen J. Smerdon, Claudia M. Nicolae, Karina Durlacher-Betzer, Vered Molho-Pessach, Abdulsalam Abu-Libdeh, Vardiella Meiner, George-Lucian Moldovan, Vassilis Roukos, Tamar Harel, Robert M. Brosh Jr., Grant S. Stewart
Inherited germline mutations in the breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes (herein BRCA1/2) greatly increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, presumably by elevating somatic mutational errors as a consequence of deficient DNA repair. However, this has never been directly demonstrated by a comprehensive analysis of the somatic mutational landscape of primary, noncancer, mammary epithelial cells of women diagnosed with pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations. Here, we used an accurate, single-cell whole-genome sequencing approach to first show that telomerized primary mammary epithelial cells heterozygous for a highly penetrant BRCA1 variant displayed a robustly elevated mutation frequency as compared with their isogenic control cells. We then demonstrated a small but statistically significant increase in mutation frequency in mammary epithelial cells isolated from the breast of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as compared with those obtained from age-matched controls with no genetically increased risk for breast cancer.
Shixiang Sun, Kristina Brazhnik, Moonsook Lee, Alexander Y. Maslov, Yi Zhang, Zhenqiu Huang, Susan Klugman, Ben H. Park, Jan Vijg, Cristina Montagna
Cancer metastasis is the cause of the majority of cancer-related deaths. In this study, we demonstrated that no expression or low expression of ATP11B in conjunction with high expression of PTDSS2, which was negatively regulated by BRCA1, markedly accelerates tumor metastasis. Further analysis revealed that cells with low ATP11B expression and high PTDSS2 expression (ATP11BloPTDSS2hi cells) were associated with poor prognosis and enhanced metastasis in breast cancer patients in general. Mechanistically, an ATP11BloPTDSS2hi phenotype was associated with increased levels of nonapoptotic phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. This PS increase serves as a global immunosuppressive signal to promote breast cancer metastasis through an enriched tumor microenvironment with the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and reduced activity of cytotoxic T cells. The metastatic processes associated with ATP11BloPTDSS2hi cancer cells can be effectively overcome by changing the expression phenotype to ATP11BhiPTDSS2lo through a combination of anti-PS antibody with either paclitaxel or docetaxel. Thus, blocking the ATP11BloPTDSS2hi axis provides a new selective therapeutic strategy to prevent metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Jun Xu, Sek Man Su, Xin Zhang, Un In Chan, Ragini Adhav, Xiaodong Shu, Jianlin Liu, Jianjie Li, Lihua Mo, Yuqing Wang, Tingting An, Josh Haipeng Lei, Kai Miao, Chu-Xia Deng, Xiaoling Xu
Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is one of the critical risk factors for early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), implicating key roles for chromosome 21–encoded genes in the pathogenesis of AD. We previously identified a role for the deubiquitinase USP25, encoded on chromosome 21, in regulating microglial homeostasis in the AD brain; however, whether USP25 affects amyloid pathology remains unknown. Here, by crossing 5×FAD AD and Dp16 DS mice, we observed that trisomy 21 exacerbated amyloid pathology in the 5×FAD brain. Moreover, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgene–mediated USP25 overexpression increased amyloid deposition in the 5×FAD mouse brain, whereas genetic deletion of Usp25 reduced amyloid deposition. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that USP25 promoted β cleavage of APP and Aβ generation by reducing the ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation of both APP and BACE1. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of USP25 ameliorated amyloid pathology in the 5×FAD mouse brain. In summary, we identified the DS-related gene USP25 as a critical regulator of AD pathology, and our data suggest that USP25 serves as a potential pharmacological target for AD drug development.
Qiuyang Zheng, Beibei Song, Guilin Li, Fang Cai, Meiling Wu, Yingjun Zhao, LuLin Jiang, Tiantian Guo, Mingyu Shen, Huan Hou, Ying Zhou, Yini Zhao, Anjie Di, Lishan Zhang, Fanwei Zeng, Xiu-Fang Zhang, Hong Luo, Xian Zhang, Hongfeng Zhang, Zhiping Zeng, Timothy Y. Huang, Chen Dong, Hong Qing, Yun Zhang, Qing Zhang, Xu Wang, Yili Wu, Huaxi Xu, Weihong Song, Xin Wang
SMAD3 plays a central role in cancer metastasis, and its hyperactivation is linked to poor cancer outcomes. Thus, it is critical to understand the upstream signaling pathways that govern SMAD3 activation. Here, we report that SMAD3 underwent methylation at K53 and K333 (K53/K333) by EZH2, a process crucial for cell membrane recruitment, phosphorylation, and activation of SMAD3 upon TGFB1 stimulation. Mechanistically, EZH2-triggered SMAD3 methylation facilitated SMAD3 interaction with its cellular membrane localization molecule (SARA), which in turn sustained SMAD3 phosphorylation by the TGFB receptor. Pathologically, increased expression of EZH2 expression resulted in the accumulation of SMAD3 methylation to facilitate SMAD3 activation. EZH2-mediated SMAD3 K53/K333 methylation was upregulated and correlated with SMAD3 hyperactivation in breast cancer, promoted tumor metastasis, and was predictive of poor survival outcomes. We used 2 TAT peptides to abrogate SMAD3 methylation and therapeutically inhibit cancer metastasis. Collectively, these findings reveal the complicated layers involved in the regulation of SMAD3 activation coordinated by EZH2-mediated SMAD3 K53/K333 methylation to drive cancer metastasis.
Changsheng Huang, Fuqing Hu, Da Song, Xuling Sun, Anyi Liu, Qi Wu, Xiaowei She, Yaqi Chen, Lisheng Chen, Fayong Hu, Feng Xu, Xuelai Luo, Yongdong Feng, Xiangping Yang, Junbo Hu, Guihua Wang
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiation, proliferation, and chemotherapy resistance. Following cancer cell death, a growing body of evidence suggests an important role for remaining apoptotic debris in regulating the immunologic response to and growth of solid tumors. Here, we investigated the role of macrophage LC3–associated phagocytosis (LAP) within the BM microenvironment of AML. Depletion of BM macrophages (BMMs) increased AML growth in vivo. We show that LAP is the predominate method of BMM phagocytosis of dead and dying cells in the AML microenvironment. Targeted inhibition of LAP led to the accumulation of apoptotic cells (ACs) and apoptotic bodies (ABs), resulting in accelerated leukemia growth. Mechanistically, LAP of AML-derived ABs by BMMs resulted in stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway activation. We found that AML-derived mitochondrial damage–associated molecular patterns were processed by BMMs via LAP. Moreover, depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in AML-derived ABs showed that it was this mtDNA that was responsible for the induction of STING signaling in BMMs. Phenotypically, we found that STING activation suppressed AML growth through a mechanism related to increased phagocytosis. In summary, we report that macrophage LAP of apoptotic debris in the AML BM microenvironment suppressed tumor growth.
Jamie A. Moore, Jayna J. Mistry, Charlotte Hellmich, Rebecca H. Horton, Edyta E. Wojtowicz, Aisha Jibril, Matthew Jefferson, Thomas Wileman, Naiara Beraza, Kristian M. Bowles, Stuart A. Rushworth
Anti-TNF antibodies are effective for treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but many patients fail to respond to anti-TNF therapy, highlighting the importance of TNF-independent disease. We previously demonstrated that acute deletion of 2 IBD susceptibility genes, A20 (Tnfaip3) and Abin-1 (Tnip1), in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) sensitized mice to both TNF-dependent and TNF-independent death. Here we show that TNF-independent IEC death after A20 and Abin-1 deletion was rescued by germ-free derivation or deletion of MyD88, while deletion of Trif provided only partial protection. Combined deletion of Ripk3 and Casp8, which inhibits both apoptotic and necroptotic death, completely protected against death after acute deletion of A20 and Abin-1 in IECs. A20- and Abin-1–deficient IECs were sensitized to TNF-independent, TNFR1-mediated death in response to lymphotoxin α (LTα) homotrimers. Blockade of LTα in vivo reduced weight loss and improved survival when combined with partial deletion of MyD88. Biopsies of inflamed colon mucosa from patients with IBD exhibited increased LTA and IL1B expression, including a subset of patients with active colitis on anti-TNF therapy. These data show that microbial signals, MyD88, and LTα all contribute to TNF-independent intestinal injury.
Iulia Rusu, Elvira Mennillo, Jared L. Bain, Zhongmei Li, Xiaofei Sun, Kimberly M. Ly, Yenny Y. Rosli, Mohammad Naser, Zunqiu Wang, Rommel Advincula, Philip Achacoso, Ling Shao, Bahram Razani, Ophir D. Klein, Alexander Marson, Jessie A. Turnbaugh, Peter J. Turnbaugh, Barbara A. Malynn, Averil Ma, Michael G. Kattah
BACKGROUND The heterogeneity of tinnitus is thought to underlie the lack of objective diagnostic measures.METHODS Longitudinal data from 20,349 participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) cohort from 2008 to 2018 were used to understand the dynamics of transition between occasional and constant tinnitus. The second part of the study included electrophysiological data from 405 participants of the Swedish Tinnitus Outreach Project (STOP) cohort.RESULTS We determined that with increasing frequency of the occasional perception of self-reported tinnitus, the odds of reporting constant tinnitus after 2 years increases from 5.62 (95% CI, 4.83–6.55) for previous tinnitus (sometimes) to 29.74 (4.82–6.55) for previous tinnitus (often). When previous tinnitus was reported to be constant, the odds of reporting it as constant after 2 years rose to 603.02 (524.74–692.98), suggesting that once transitioned to constant tinnitus, the likelihood of tinnitus to persist was much greater. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) from subjects reporting nontinnitus (controls), occasional tinnitus, and constant tinnitus show that wave V latency increased in constant tinnitus when compared with occasional tinnitus or nontinnitus. The ABR from occasional tinnitus was indistinguishable from that of the nontinnitus controls.CONCLUSIONS Our results support the hypothesis that the transition from occasional to constant tinnitus is accompanied by neuronal changes in the midbrain leading to a persisting tinnitus, which is then less likely to remit.FUNDING This study was supported by the GENDER-Net Co-Plus Fund (GNP-182), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 grants no. 848261 (Unification of Treatments and Interventions for Tinnitus [UNITI]) and no. 722046 (European School for Interdisciplinary Tinnitus Research [ESIT]).
Niklas K. Edvall, Golbarg Mehraei, Martin Claeson, Andra Lazar, Jan Bulla, Constanze Leineweber, Inger Uhlén, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R. Cederroth
Recent studies have shown that vaccinated individuals harbor T cells that can cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 and endemic human common cold coronaviruses. However, it is still unknown whether CD4+ T cells from vaccinated individuals recognize peptides from bat coronaviruses that may have the potential of causing future pandemics. In this study, we identified a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitope (S815-827) that is conserved in coronaviruses from different genera and subgenera, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, multiple bat coronaviruses, and a feline coronavirus. Our results showed that S815-827 was recognized by 42% of vaccinated participants in our study who received the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273) COVID-19 vaccines. Using T cell expansion and T cell receptor sequencing assays, we demonstrated that S815-827-reactive CD4+ T cells from the majority of responders cross-recognized homologous peptides from at least 6 other diverse coronaviruses. Our results support the hypothesis that the current mRNA vaccines elicit T cell responses that can cross-recognize bat coronaviruses and thus might induce some protection against potential zoonotic outbreaks. Furthermore, our data provide important insights that inform the development of T cell–based pan-coronavirus vaccine strategies.
Bezawit A. Woldemeskel, Arbor G. Dykema, Caroline C. Garliss, Saphira Cherfils, Kellie N. Smith, Joel N. Blankson
GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell (EC) protein, captures lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial spaces (where it is secreted by myocytes and adipocytes) and transports it across ECs to its site of action in the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1’s 3-fingered LU domain is required for LPL binding, but the function of its acidic domain (AD) has remained unclear. We created mutant mice lacking the AD and found severe hypertriglyceridemia. As expected, the mutant GPIHBP1 retained the capacity to bind LPL. Unexpectedly, however, most of the GPIHBP1 and LPL in the mutant mice was located on the abluminal surface of ECs (explaining the hypertriglyceridemia). The GPIHBP1-bound LPL was trapped on the abluminal surface of ECs by electrostatic interactions between the large basic patch on the surface of LPL and negatively charged heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface of ECs. GPIHBP1 trafficking across ECs in the mutant mice was normalized by disrupting LPL-HSPG electrostatic interactions with either heparin or an AD peptide. Thus, GPIHBP1’s AD plays a crucial function in plasma triglyceride metabolism; it sheathes LPL’s basic patch on the abluminal surface of ECs, thereby preventing LPL-HSPG interactions and freeing GPIHBP1-LPL complexes to move across ECs to the capillary lumen.
Wenxin Song, Anne P. Beigneux, Anne-Marie L. Winther, Kristian K. Kristensen, Anne L. Grønnemose, Ye Yang, Yiping Tu, Priscilla Munguia, Jazmin Morales, Hyesoo Jung, Pieter J. de Jong, Cris J. Jung, Kazuya Miyashita, Takao Kimura, Katsuyuki Nakajima, Masami Murakami, Gabriel Birrane, Haibo Jiang, Peter Tontonoz, Michael Ploug, Loren G. Fong, Stephen G. Young
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine that signals through STAT3 to regulate T follicular helper cell (TFH) differentiation and germinal center formation. In SIV-infected macaques, levels of IL-10 in plasma and lymph node (LN) were induced by infection and not normalized with ART. During chronic infection, plasma IL-10 and transcriptomic signatures of IL-10 signaling were correlated with the cell-associated SIV-DNA content within LN CD4+ memory subsets, including TFH, and predicted the frequency of CD4+ TFH and their cell-associated SIV-DNA content during ART, respectively. In ART-treated RMs, cells harboring SIV-DNA by DNAscope were preferentially found in the LN B-cell follicle in proximity to IL-10. Finally, we demonstrated that the in vivo neutralization of soluble IL-10 in ART-treated, SIV-infected macaques reduced B cell follicle maintenance and by extension LN memory CD4+ T-cells, including TFH and those expressing PD-1 and CTLA-4. Thus, these data support a role for IL-10 in maintaining a pool of target cells in lymphoid tissue that serve as a niche for viral persistence. Targeting IL-10 signaling to impair CD4+ T-cell survival and improve antiviral immune responses may represent a novel approach to limit viral persistence in ART-suppressed people living with HIV.
Justin Harper, Susan P. Ribeiro, Chi Ngai Chan, Malika Aid, Claire Deleage, Luca Micci, Maria Pino, Barbara Cervasi, Gopalan Raghunathan, Eric Rimmer, Gulesi Ayanoglu, Guoxin Wu, Neeta Shenvi, Richard J.O. Barnard, Gregory Q. Del Prete, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Guido Silvestri, Deanna A. Kulpa, Steven E. Bosinger, Kirk Easley, Bonnie J. Howell, Dan Gorman, Daria J. Hazuda, Jacob D. Estes, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Mirko Paiardini
Collagens in the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide a physical barrier to tumor immune infiltration, while also acting as a ligand for immune inhibitory receptors. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key contributor to shaping the ECM by stimulating the production and remodeling of collagens. TGF-β-activation signatures and collagen-rich environments have both been associated with T-cell exclusion and lack of responses to immunotherapy. Here we describe the effect of targeting collagens that signal through the inhibitory leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) in combination with blockade of TGF-β and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). This approach remodeled the tumor collagenous matrix, enhanced tumor infiltration and activation of CD8+ T cells, and repolarized suppressive macrophage populations resulting in high cure rates and long-term tumor-specific protection across murine models of colon and mammary carcinoma. The results highlight the advantage of direct targeting of ECM components in combination with immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
Lucas A. Horn, Paul L. Chariou, Sofia R. Gameiro, Haiyan Qin, Masafumi Iida, Kristen Fousek, Thomas J. Meyer, Margaret Cam, Dallas Flies, Solomon Langermann, Jeffrey Schlom, Claudia Palena
IFN-γ-stimulated histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) antigen presentation underlies the core of anti-tumor immunity. However, sustained IFN-γ signaling also enhances PD-L1 checkpoint pathway to dampen anti-tumor immunity. It remains unclear how these opposing effects of IFN-γ are regulated. Here we reported that loss of the histone dimethyl transferase WHSC1 impaired the anti-tumor effect of IFN-γ signaling by the transcriptional downregulation of the MHC-I machinery without affecting PD-L1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Whsc1 loss promoted tumorigenesis via a non-cell autonomous mechanism in an Apcmin/+ mouse model, CRC organoids and xenografts. Mechanistically, we identified that IFN-γ-STAT1 signal axis stimulated WHSC1 expression, and in turn WHSC1 directly interacted with NLRC5 to promote MHC-I gene expression, but not PD-L1 level. Concordantly, silencing Whsc1 diminished MHC-I levels, impaired anti-tumor immunity and blunted the effect of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICB). Patient cohort analysis revealed that WHSC1 expression positively correlated with enhanced MHC-I expression, tumor-infiltrating T cells and favorable disease outcome. Together, our findings establish a tumor-suppressive function of WHSC1 that relays IFN-γ signaling to promote antigen presentation in CRC cells, and provide a rationale for boosting WHSC1 activity in immunotherapy.
Jiale Ren, Ni Li, Siyu Pei, Yannan Lian, Li Li, Yuchong Peng, Qiuli Liu, Jiacheng Guo, Xuege Wang, Ying Han, Guoying Zhang, Hanling Wang, Yaqi Li, Jun Jiang, Qintong Li, Minjia Tan, Junjie Peng, Guohong Hu, Yichuan Xiao, Xiong Li, Moubin Lin, Jun Qin
Germline mutations that activate genes in the canonical RAS/MAPK signaling pathway are responsible for rare human developmental disorders known as RASopathies. Here, we analyzed the molecular determinants of Costello syndrome (CS) using a mouse model expressing HRAS p.G12S, patient skin fibroblasts, hiPSC-derived human cardiomyocytes, a HRAS p.G12V zebrafish model and human fibroblasts expressing lentiviral constructs carrying HRAS p.G12S or HRAS p.G12A mutations. The findings revealed alteration of mitochondrial proteostasis and defective oxidative phosphorylation in the heart and skeletal muscle of Costello mice that were also found in the cell models of the disease. The underpinning mechanisms involved the inhibition of the AMPK signaling pathway by mutant forms of HRAS, leading to alteration of mitochondrial proteostasis and bioenergetics. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality control restored organelle function in HRAS p.G12A and p.G12S cell models, reduced left ventricle hypertrophy in the CS mice and diminished the occurrence of developmental defects in the CS zebrafish model. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of mitochondrial proteostasis in the pathophysiology of RASopathies and suggest that patients with Costello syndrome may benefit from treatment with mitochondrial modulators.
Laetitia Dard, Christophe Hubert, Pauline Esteves, Wendy Blanchard, Ghina Bou About, Lyla Baldasseroni, Elodie Dumon, Chloe Angelini, Mégane Delourme, Véronique Guyonnet-Duperat, Stephane Claverol, Marc Bonneu, Laura Fontenille, Karima Kissa, Pierre-Emmanuel Séguéla, Jean-Benoît Thambo, Nicolas Levy, Yann Herault, Nadège Bellance, Nivea Dias Amoedo, Frederique Magdinier, Tania Sorg, Didier Lacombe, Rodrigue Rossignol
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a crucial heat-generating organ, regulate whole-body energy metabolism by mediating thermogenesis. BAT inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired thermogenesis. However, the link between BAT inflammation and systematic metabolism remains unclear. Herein, we use mice with BAT deficiency of thioredoxin-2 (TRX2), a protein that scavenges mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), to evaluate the impact of BAT inflammation on metabolism and thermogenesis and its underlying mechanism. Our results describe that BAT-specific TRX2 ablation improves systematic metabolic performance via enhancing lipid uptake, which protects mice from diet-induced obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance. TRX2 deficiency impairs adaptive thermogenesis by suppressing fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistically, loss of TRX2 induces excessive mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial integrity disruption, and cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA, which in turn activate aberrant innate immune responses in BAT, including the cGAS-STING and the NLRP3 inflammasome pathways. We identify NLRP3 as a key converging point, as its inhibition reverses both the thermogenesis defect and the metabolic benefits seen under nutrient overload in BAT-specific Trx2-deficient mice. In conclusion, we identify TRX2 as a critical hub integrating oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid metabolism in BAT; uncovering an adaptive mechanism underlying the link between BAT inflammation and systematic metabolism.
Yanrui Huang, Jenny H. Zhou, Haifeng Zhang, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Abhishek K. Singh, Rachel J. Perry, Gerald Shulman, Carlos Fernandez-Hernando, Wang Min
Studies of the metabolic reprogramming that occurs in activated immune cells may reveal critical therapeutic nodes in immune-related disorders and provide guidance for fine-tuning immune-targeted therapies. In this series, curated by Jonathan Powell, reviews focus on the metabolic pathways underlying immune involvement in disease and treatment: strategies to enhance immune memory, vaccine responses, and cancer immunotherapy by optimizing memory T cell metabolism; metabolites that modulate immune function; the metabolites of the tumor microenvironment that reshape immune cell function in the tumor’s favor; metabolism-targeted small molecule inhibitors developed for oncology applications; and dyslipidemia in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Together, the reviews illustrate the complex energetic dynamics supporting function and dysfunction in the innate and adaptive immune systems.